Table of Contents

# Geometry

Geometry can be defined as the study of sizes, shapes, positions, angles, and dimensions of objects. The term geometry comes from the Ancient Greek word ‘Geo’ meaning ‘earth’ and ‘metron’ meaning ‘measurement’. The angles, planes, points, and lines are the basic pillars of geometry. These concepts help in understanding and creating geometrical shapes. The study of geometry plays a vital role in numerous areas from planning a space trip to building bridges. Geometry also allows the creation, measurement, and comparison of various shapes. According to Euclidean geometry, shapes can be two- dimensional and three-dimensional. The plane geometry involves two- dimensional (2d) shapes like circles, rectangles, squares, and triangles which are popularly called flat shapes. And solid geometry involves three-dimensional(3d) shapes for example – cones, cubes, cuboids, and so on. These shapes are also known as solids.

## Different Branches of Geometry

There are some important branches of geometry enlisted below:

- Discrete Geometry- It indulges the study of related positions of basic geometric shapes like points, circles, triangles, and lines.
- Differential Geometry- The major problems like general relativity in physics can be solved using techniques of calculus and algebra.
- Convex Geometry- The Euclidean space consists of convex geometry. It allows the application of functional analysis and optimization in digits theory.
- Topology- It involves continuous mapping. It contributes to the application of function space, hyperspace topologies, metric space, proximity space, and separation axioms.
- Algebraic Geometry- It indulges the polynomial algebraic equations and linear equations which are used to solve zeros arranged in sets. For instance, string theory and cryptography, and so on.
- Euclidean Geometry- It comprises the learning of plane and solid figures formed on axioms and theorems. Euclidean geometry is also used in crystallography, computer science, and modern mathematics problems.

## Importance of Geometry

- Geometry is used vividly in art. From stroking a brush and creating designs for paintings requires the expression of ideas, the use of vibrant colors involves the application of geometry.
- The application of geometry in academics helps students to build strong cognitive abilities and improve their skills in problem-solving.
- It helps students to get the topographic site’s direction and location on the paper. The practical thinking of students gets boosted by reviewing sites in a real-life context.

## Application of Geometry

- We need geometry in creating audio-visual presentations on platforms like education, entertainment, and so on. Geometry also plays an important role in forming the shapes of laptops, computers, smartphones, etc.
- An artist uses designs, patterns, and color brushes to make a painting. And the creativity used by the artist exercises geometry as its basic principle.
- The application of geometry in measuring the width and length of the house gives a clear idea of where to build walls and create rooms. So, geometry is very much needed in interior design.
- Coordinate geometry is exercised in tracking the location of stars and measuring the orbital path. We learn the distance between planets and satellites through coordinate geometry.
- Geometry plays a vital role in planning the construction of roads, houses, dams, temples, etc.

## Surface Area of Rectangular Prism

The surface area of rectangular prism can be defined as the area covered by the total faces of a rectangular prism. This prism has a three-dimensional shape, consisting of six rectangular faces. However, the base of the rectangular prism always remains rectangle in shape. For example- the surface area of a book, the surface area of a matchbox, and so on.

The rectangular prism can be categorized into two types based on areas, they are as follows:

- Total surface area.
- Lateral surface area.

You can learn more about math concepts at Cuemath.